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Airbus studied such an arrangement in the mids. In the second half of the s, OKB as the Ilyushin bureau was formally known was restoring positions lost with Yakovlev, in favour of Tupolev and Antonov during the Khrushchev era  and was well placed to secure design of the aerobus.
The bureau received specific operational requirements for the aerobus on February 22, In developing the concept which had been agreed, Ilyushin faced four challenges: configuration layout or "shape" , powerplant, automation avionics and manufacturing capacity.
Ilyushin began work on the aerobus in late , initially by assessing the development potential of existing aircraft.
An enlarged Il the Il would have had a tonne payload, seats and a 6. Other proposed Il modifications involved double-deck and "two fuselages side-by-side" developments.
There was also a project to "civilianise" the Il From March  the bureau developed all-new designs under the Il designation.
Instead of the " appropriate technology " approach of the Il, these designs were to have powered controls, complex high-lift devices and advanced automation which would reduce the number of flightdeck crew.
An early avanproyekt was shown to the Soviet leadership at an exhibition of civil aviation innovations at Vnukovo-2 Airport near Moscow on May 17, It had a twin-aisle interior with nine-abreast seating in a "" layout.
Ilyushin considered it politic to make the interior wider than any planned airliner except the Boeing The Il had the second-widest fuselage of any airliner until the Boeing On this basis, on 9 March ,  the bureau was asked to proceed with detailed design.
The difference between the model and the eventual Il was in configuration: the model had looked like an Il The configuration of heavy jet aircraft was a politically sensitive issue in the USSR.
Responsible TsAGI officials and industry leaders robustly called that aircraft 'utter nonsense' similar opinions were expressed of the Boeing Similar controversies were known in Western aeronautical circles  but this Soviet approach showed a typical streak of dogmatism which held that problems had immutable, "scientifically-correct" solutions.
This meeting had been approved at the highest levels of both governments because each side had something the other wanted very badly: the Soviets wanted to know exactly why Boeing had put the engines in under-wing pods instead of at the rear of the fuselage, while Withington and the Boeing engineers had a long list of questions about the processing and use of titanium in airframes at the time Boeing badly needed this for their proposed Boeing SST, at Mach 3 too fast and hot for Concorde-style aluminium, and the Soviets then led the world in titanium technology.
According to Sutter's account, both sides left the meeting well satisfied with the exchange of information.
It seems again according to Sutter's account of the aftermath that this meeting may have made a real difference to Soviet aircraft design, but Boeing's contribution could naturally not be acknowledged publicly by the Soviet side.
Ilyushin therefore had to stress that it had been the first in the world to use podded engines suspended from pylons beneath and ahead of the wing, on the experimental Ilyushin Il four-engined jet bomber of first use of this designation.
The main problem facing the Il project was the lack of a suitable engine. It was never resolved.
By the close of the s, the US and the UK had turbofans with bypass ratios of 4 or 5 to 1. The first Soviet large turbofan, the Lotarev DT , did not appear before the mids.
It had a bypass ratio of 2. It failed to attain the required thrust, however: "only after the lapse of three years that were spent on preparing the advanced development project did it become clear that these engines would not provide the necessary take-off performance.
Both these engines had high specific fuel consumptions and were noisy. Being ultimate developments of smaller engines, they could not offer growth to future Ils.
The design and entry into service in of the Tu , an airliner built to high technology principles more automation, less human input , showed that Soviet science lagged behind in the development of avionics which would remove the need for navigators and radio operators.
A programme of avionics development was mounted to enable the Il to operate in most weather with a three-member flight crew, matching Western technology of the time.
The shortage of manufacturing facilities for the Il was a problem from the outset: "The rapid modernisation of the Soviet Air Force The Soviets tried to import technology to solve the issues with the powerplant, avionics and manufacturing capacity.
The attempts took two directions. First was wholesale technology transfer similar to the Li-2 deal of the s.
This would have delayed Il development, since the programme would have been demoted to a reserve status. The second direction was to import individual systems and items.
This would have speeded Il development. The fact that Il development was protracted indicates that for long periods the programme was pursued as backup insurance in case wholesale technology transfer failed.
Before the Boeing had flown, a Ministry of Civil Aviation delegation visited the United States for a series of detailed sales presentations on the type lasting three days.
At the Paris Salon, Ilyushin bureau head Genrikh Novozhilov and Boeing's Joe Sutter are claimed to have arranged an informal technology trade-off.
Over supper in a Paris restaurant, the Soviet side ceded information on titanium technology to the Americans, while the latter, "sketching on the tablecloth," ceded information on pylon-mounted podded engines and "the structural and aerodynamic amity of the aeroelastic wing.
Negotiations to buy 30 TriStars of the L version and licence-produce up to a year in a new factory employing 80, people  continued until mid TriStar exports would have needed Coordinating Committee clearance: the type embodied advanced technology banned from potential enemies.
By analogy with other aircraft programmes,  a third direction in the efforts to acquire foreign technology may have involved illicit action along the lines of the reverse engineering of the Tu-4 from the B and the copying of the Rolls-Royce Nene jet engine as the Klimov VK Oblique reference to this comes in an account of the An by the then-powerplant head of the Antonov bureau, V.
Anisyenko: "The MAP leadership wanted to have a uniform large engine also capable of civil aviation applications, such as the Il The most suitable analogue from this viewpoint was considered to be the Rolls-Royce RB.
To purchase it, in a MAP procurement party went to Great Britain, headed by engine construction deputy minister Dondukov Our ultimate task was to copy the RB.
The English As a result, we did not get a sample The design process at Ilyushin was managed by Sergey Ilyushin's successor as head of the bureau, Genrikh Novozhilov.
The timescale announced in envisaged first flight in and service entry in time for the Moscow Olympics in The prototype flew at Khodynka airfield where Ilyushin's experimental factory was on December 22, Soviet airliners often flew before the close of calendar years due to the requirements of Five-Year Plans.
It was announced that the type had a patented electromagnetic pulse deicing system. The initial test programme was flown by Ilyushin staff, ending two months ahead of schedule on October 20, Other sources claim that these tests were completed on 22 September Initial certification flying by pilots independent of Ilyushin ended on June 6, State acceptance trials began on April 24, and ended on December 24, Overall development of the Il occupied over a decade.
The length of this period was due to the sensitivity of the airliner's configuration, problems with its powerplant, prolonged avionics development and the low priority of civil as opposed to military aircraft.
Certificating the Il to the very demanding set of Soviet and Comecon standards called NLGS-2 also delayed progress; it was the first Soviet aircraft to undergo a full certification programme since certification was introduced in the USSR in and became mandatory five years later.
Production of the Il began in late and continued until There was no prototype. The first two machines were handmade by Ilyushin at the bureau's own Moscow facility in and One was used for flight testing and the other for static ground testing.
The first flown on October 25, was built largely by hand, subsequent machines making increasing use of production equipment.
These aircraft were used in certification and development flying before handover to Aeroflot. Capacity at Voronezh was insufficient and the Polish aircraft industry was involved in the Il project from the start.
WSK-Mielec to a new level of capability After certification in , annual Il outputs were: , 1; , 0; , 11; , 12; , 8; , 9 including the four for 8 ADON ; , 11; , 10; , 10; , 9; , 11 including the three for export to China , , 3.
The Five-Year Plan in force when the USSR ceased to exist called for 40 more aircraft to be manufactured by , but the manufacturing facility closed in early All-metal low-wing land monoplane with four wing-mounted low-bypass turbofan engines.
Cantilever three-spar structure of modified trapezoid planform. Centre section integral with fuselage.
Inboard sections, outboard sections and detachable leading and trailing edges. High-lift devices comprise full-span six-segment leading edge slats contiguous at engine pylons at up to Two-segment outboard ailerons for low speed roll control.
Boundary layer fences over pylons. Engines suspended from the wing on pylons act as anti-flutter weights. Circular-section structure of frames and stringers with a continuous main deck and lower decks fore and aft of the centre section.
Rectangular windows in most interframe bays, eight ICAO Type 1a passenger doors on the main deck and three more on the lower deck portside; two freight hold doors and a galley supply door on the lower deck starboard.
The main deck houses the flightdeck, two wardrobes, eight toilets, two pantries and a three-section passenger cabin.
The entire accommodation is pressurised and air-conditioned with "earphones for music or on-board cinema. Cantilevered trapezoid planform swept-back surfaces.
Two-segment elevators and rudder. Tailplane area Fin area Landing gear of near-conventional layout, with a twin-wheeled nose leg and three four-wheel bogie main gear legs centreline and two outers.
Track is 9. Pneumatic starters start the engines airborne relights use the windmill effect. The forward-facing ejectors blow away detritus during taxi.
International Standard Atmosphere hourly fuel consumption per engine is 7. Outboard engine pylons on the latter two-thirds of all Ils are marginally extended to cut drag.
Hydraulically driven. While it is true that Nostradamus claimed in to have burned all of the occult works in his library, no one can say exactly what books were destroyed in this fire.
Only in the 17th century did people start to notice his reliance on earlier, mainly classical sources.
Nostradamus's reliance on historical precedent is reflected in the fact that he explicitly rejected the label "prophet" i.
Although, my son, I have used the word prophet , I would not attribute to myself a title of such lofty sublimity. Given this reliance on literary sources, it is unlikely that Nostradamus used any particular methods for entering a trance state , other than contemplation , meditation and incubation.
The first of these is reproduced at the bottom of this article and the second can be seen by visiting the relevant facsimile site see External Links.
In his dedication to King Henry II, Nostradamus describes "emptying my soul, mind and heart of all care, worry and unease through mental calm and tranquility", but his frequent references to the "bronze tripod" of the Delphic rite are usually preceded by the words "as though" compare, once again, External References to the original texts.
Most of the quatrains deal with disasters, such as plagues, earthquakes, wars, floods, invasions, murders, droughts, and battles—all undated and based on foreshadowings by the Mirabilis Liber.
Some quatrains cover these disasters in overall terms; others concern a single person or small group of people. Some cover a single town, others several towns in several countries.
Many of Nostradamus's supporters believe his prophecies are genuine. Possibly the first of these books to become popular in English was Henry C.
Roberts ' The Complete Prophecies of Nostradamus of , reprinted at least seven times during the next forty years, which contained both transcriptions and translations, with brief commentaries.
After that came Erika Cheetham 's The Prophecies of Nostradamus , incorporating a reprint of the posthumous edition, which was reprinted, revised and republished several times from onwards, latterly as The Final Prophecies of Nostradamus.
This served as the basis for the documentary The Man Who Saw Tomorrow and both did indeed mention possible generalised future attacks on New York via nuclear weapons , though not specifically on the World Trade Center or on any particular date.
In one commentator who claimed to be able to contact Nostradamus under hypnosis even had him "interpreting" his own verse X.
Pepys records in his celebrated diary a legend that, before his death, Nostradamus made the townsfolk swear that his grave would never be disturbed; but that 60 years later his body was exhumed, whereupon a brass plaque was found on his chest correctly stating the date and time when his grave would be opened and cursing the exhumers.
In , Li Hongzhi claimed that the prophecy at X. From the s onward, however, an academic reaction set in, especially in France.
The publication in of Nostradamus's private correspondence  and, during succeeding years, of the original editions of and discovered by Chomarat and Benazra, together with the unearthing of much original archival material   revealed that much that was claimed about Nostradamus did not fit the documented facts.
The academics     revealed that not one of the claims just listed was backed up by any known contemporary documentary evidence.
Most of them had evidently been based on unsourced rumours relayed as fact by much later commentators, such as Jaubert , Guynaud and Bareste , on modern misunderstandings of the 16th-century French texts, or on pure invention.
Even the often-advanced suggestion that quatrain I. Skeptics such as James Randi suggest that his reputation as a prophet is largely manufactured by modern-day supporters who fit his words to events that have either already occurred or are so imminent as to be inevitable, a process sometimes known as "retroactive clairvoyance" postdiction.
No Nostradamus quatrain is known to have been interpreted as predicting a specific event before it occurred, other than in vague, general terms that could equally apply to any number of other events.
Additionally, scholars have pointed out that almost all English translations of Nostradamus's quatrains are of extremely poor quality, seem to display little or no knowledge of 16th-century French, are tendentious , and are sometimes intentionally altered in order to make them fit whatever events the translator believed they were supposed to refer or vice versa.
Even Leoni accepted on page that he had never seen an original edition, and on earlier pages, he indicated that much of his biographical material was unsourced.
None of this research and criticism was originally known to most of the English-language commentators, by dint of the dates when they were writing and, to some extent, the language in which it was written.
Meanwhile, some of the more recent sources listed Lemesurier, Gruber, Wilson have been particularly scathing about later attempts by some lesser-known authors and Internet enthusiasts to extract alleged hidden meanings from the texts, whether with the aid of anagrams, numerical codes, graphs or otherwise.
The prophecies retold and expanded by Nostradamus figured largely in popular culture in the 20th and 21st centuries.
As well as being the subject of hundreds of books both fiction and nonfiction , Nostradamus's life has been depicted in several films and videos, and his life and writings continue to be a subject of media interest.
There have also been several well-known Internet hoaxes , where quatrains in the style of Nostradamus have been circulated by e-mail as the real thing.
The best-known examples concern the collapse of the World Trade Center in the 11 September attacks. With the arrival of the year , Nostradamus's prophecies started to be co-opted especially by the History Channel as evidence suggesting that the end of the world was imminent, notwithstanding the fact that his book never mentions the end of the world, let alone the year From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 27 June For other uses, see Nostradamus disambiguation. Salon-de-Provence , Provence, France.
Main articles. Death and culture Parapsychology Scientific literacy. Nostradamus's supporters have retrospectively claimed that he predicted major world events, including the Great Fire of London , the French Revolution , the rises of Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler , the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , and September 11 attacks.
Main article: Nostradamus in popular culture. Biography portal. More were later added, amounting to in an omnibus edition published after his death organized into ten "Centuries", each one containing one hundred quatrains, except for Century VII, which, for unknown reasons, only contains forty-two; the other fifty-eight may have been lost due to a problem during publication.
Similarly, the expression Pau, Nay, Loron —often interpreted as an anagram of "Napaulon Roy"—refers to three towns in southwestern France near his one-time home.
Nostradamus: The Man Behind the Prophecies. Martin's Press. London: W. Chambers Limited. Retrieved 7 January Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 11 September Internet Sacred Text Archive.
Archived from the original on 24 September Retrieved 20 March The Diary of Samuel Pepys. Nostradamus and Prophecies of the Next Millennium.
Nostradamus, Michel:: Orus Apollo , ? Librairie Droz. Scherz Verlag GmbH. John Hunt Publishing. Nostradamus: The Illustrated Prophecies.
Lemesurier, Peter 20 August Career PressInc. Nostradamus and his prophecies. Dover Publications. Nostradamus: Ses origines, sa vie, son oeuvre.
Jeanne Laffitte. The mask of Nostradamus. American Historical Review. Nostradamus: The Evidence. Orion Books Limited. Namespaces Article Talk.46 ^Ö^O 21 0 0,9 47 35 29,8 24 49 33,0 40 31 31,9 65 41 15 +4,7 Г 22 58 26 30 28 12 18 2 38 36 31 8 26 58 24 26 34 38 34 32 42 22 58 32 n. f onie г 24 2 30. Јабучић, m. ein junger 24pfe16 аит, фа - Јагњипінсе, имсе, т. г. impf. Гаттеп, lus parva, pario (de. ove). Јабучица, f, dim. p. јабука. 2) per Јагода, і. D. 22 Vincentius F. 23 Еmerentia S. 24Тimotheus * *5) Раий вененг. Рf. Albanus М. за Achatius Г. 24 ЛИarcия М. 27 Аnaftafius D. 28 Vitalis м. 29Petr. Martyr. Нимелкм.э.S}ё5 ва; c4eer, Arc, arц. гл. ед.; г.в.; -^— Еrb = Rec zu der- 7, Нтёр Ами Sc МомА в сн:». Катау 4 уве» глет Лао а та ж.4/a-zz с г.с геи о. 11 11 10 11,0 24 22 -»,42 ~ 14,6 —‚ 10,01' /3L„o,1is. 45 42 `"58 “"Libr1\e, 65 г24 20 f 21 15 16 ß Ursae mm I 24 г 24 25 §27 C“P¢lla<.